Macronutrients are nutrients that provide calories. Calories are used as energy in your body. Nutrients are substances needed for growing, digestion, and other body functions. Since "macro" means large, macronutrients are nutrients needed in large amounts. There are three categories of macronutrients:
Carbohydrates are mostly in foods in the starchy foods groups, but also in vegetables, fruits, dairy foods, and sugars. The primary sources of protein are meats and dairy products. Fat can be found in dairy and meats. Fat can also be added to food, such as salad dressing or margarine. Fat can also be added when food is made, such as chips, cookies, or pizza.
When food is digested, the protein is broken down into amino acids; the fat is broken down into fatty acids; and the carbohydrate is broken down into glucose. It is easy to see, then, that most of the glucose (sugar) in your blood comes from the carbohydrate in foods.
Normally when carbohydrates are eaten and digested, blood glucose rises. This causes insulin to be secreted from the pancreas. The insulin is needed for glucose to move into cells.
When insulin responds to a higher blood glucose, the glucose enters the cells where it is either used as energy, stored as glycogen, or converted for long-term storage as adipose (body fat).
Remember, diabetes is the medical word used when someone either doesn't have any insulin or when the insulin they have isn't effective. When someone doesn't have any insulin, it is called Type 1 diabetes. When the insulin is not effective, it is called Type 2 diabetes. In both cases, the blood glucose stays high unless medication is given or the diet is changed.